Curtin, ‘Medical education and you can urban believed inside the tropical Africa’, AHR, ninety, step 3 (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical education and you can urban believed inside the tropical Africa’, AHR, ninety, step 3 (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (step one914), 140-1

96 AOM, AP648, Decree to the production of an excellent Commune during the Brazzaville, 5 October 1911; message from Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Yearly statement from Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty-six. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Au Congo, 121. 100 Colonel Moll, Une dme de- colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De Bordeaux bien au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step 32-step 3, step 3 8 ^ 0 . 101 For metropolitan buildings during the colonial Africa, see, Philip D. Betts, Not sure proportions: west to another country empires regarding the twentieth century (Minneapolis: School from Minnesota Drive, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion en ce qui concerne l’architecture europeenne le long de- los angeles cote africaine an effective partir de l’exemple de los angeles Guinee’, when you look at the Almeida-Topor and you may Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes en ce qui concerne VAfrique, 81-92; and you may Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition about solution out-of modernity: buildings and you may urbanism from inside the French colonial rules, 1900-1930’, Record of modern History, 59 (Summer 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 On the history and you will significance of the fresh Fourteenth out-of July when you look at the Brazzaville, select Phyllis Yards. Martin, ‘National holidays switched: the new fourteenth out-of July within the Brazzaville’, report shown in the thirty-seventh annual fulfilling of your own African Training free cambodian dating site Relationship, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport sur la region de Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 36. 106 Speech out of Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais durante Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The feeling out-of colonialism into the health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical education and metropolitan planning’, 594-eight. 110 Ibid., 598-609; along with Headrick, ‘The feeling regarding colonialism towards the health’, 1cuatro3-cuatro, 801-2. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne la part de Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Ce Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport sur los angeles area de Brazzaville’; along with AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Administrator in order to Commissioner-General within the Libreville, thirteen July 1901. 116 Cited within the Headrick, ‘The perception from colonialism for the health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 May 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Annual accounts ‘Oeuvres de la Sainte-Enfance’, twenty-four Oct 1901,step one January 1903,ten November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue are a reference to manioc bread. 120 AOM, TP152, very first series, Mission Fillon, Statement regarding Yards. Henri on Brazzaville employees, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9.

Fehderau, The origin and you may development of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) implies that Kituba was a language on the slave trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Objective Record, 31 Could possibly get 1908; R. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9. 124 Come across, instance, J.-P. Chretien and Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The manufacture of tribalism in the southern Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Gray, Adaptation and you can cultural identity: the production of national place within the rural France and you can colonial place in outlying Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana University Focus on All over the world Change and you may Business Serenity, 1994); Terence Ranger, New advancement of heritage during the colonial Africa’, into the Hobsbawm and Ranger (eds.), The fresh new creativity out of culture, 211-62, that he has actually changed as the development regarding tradition revisited: the scenario away from colonial Africa’, inside the Terence Ranger and you may Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Authenticity while the condition from inside the twentieth century Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. In the revision out of his essay, Ranger has been influenced, among others, because of the Benedict Anderson, Thought organizations: reflections for the root and you can bequeath out of nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, The latest origins out-of Kituba and Lingala’, Journal regarding African Dialects and you may Linguistics, a dozen, 1 (Sep 1991), 47-77, shows that the diffusion is actually alot more pertaining to foreign railway gurus regarding the down Congo. 126 ASMF, E l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren in order to SMF, 18 Oct 1911; B and you can Age. zero. step 1, Korr., Lindgren in order to SMF, 11 November 1911; F. no. step 1, Dagbok, twenty two February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, G. A beneficial. Hult so you can SMF, 11 January 1918. 127 Message away from Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Statement from the Pond region, Brazzaville, Get 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y a beneficial-t-il des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The origins out-of Kituba and Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and you will ‘Bondjo ethnicity and colonial imagination’, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, twenty five (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Goal Diary, 30 Get 1908,twenty five September 1910,1 December 1913. 131 See chapters step three and you will 4. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, 27 (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees bien au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), fifty, 72-step three,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 29, 31. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Administrative statement, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban space, commercial go out, and you may wage work in the Africa’, within his Fight into the area, 23. dos 1

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